Intranasal galantamine/chitosan complex nanoparticles elicit neuroprotection potentials in rat brains via antioxidant effect

Lamia Said Kandil, Ragwa M. Farid, Safaa S. ElGamal, Amira Sayed Hanafy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Alzheimer’s disease is a common cause of dementia in the elderly. Galantamine hydrobromide (GH) is an anti-Alzheimer cholinesterase inhibitor that has an intrinsic antioxidant effect. In a previous study, GH was complexed with chitosan to prepare intranasal GH/chitosan complex nanoparticles (CX-NP2). The nanoparticles were located in rat brains 1 h after nasal administration and showed pharmacological superiority to GH nasal solution without showing histopathological toxicity.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether the long-term administration of CX-NP2 leads to biochemical toxicity in rat brains compared to GH nasal solution.

Methods: CX-NP2 dispersion and GH solution were administrated intranasally to male Wistar rats for 30 days (3 mg/kg/day). Malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation marker, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assessed in the brain extracts in all groups.

Results: There was statistically insignificant difference between the CX-NP2 and GH nasal solution treated groups in all biochemical toxicity parameters assessed. Interestingly, MDA and TNF-α levels in the CX-NP2-treated group significantly decreased compared to the control group. Also, GSH level and SOD activity were significantly enhanced in CX-NP2 treated group compared to the control group.

Conclusions: CX-NP2 did not induce a statistically significant oxidative stress or neuroinflammation in rat brains after 30-day treatment, they rather elicited neuroprotective potentials.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)735-740
Number of pages6
JournalDrug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Issue number5
Early online date7 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Brain targeting
  • chitosan nanoparticles
  • nanotoxicity
  • nasal drug delivery

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