Investigating the relationship between learning channel sets during the mathematical practice of autistic students

Athanasios Vostanis, Ciara Padden, Peter E. Langdon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Learning channels refer to the way students receive instruction and respond to it. We examined the relationship between See-Say and See-Write learning channel sets during the mathematical practice of four male autistic students, aged 8 to 14 years. Participants received practice in the ×7 and ×8 tables across both channel sets. Lessons included untimed practice, timed practice, graphing and goal-setting. A multiple treatments design, embedded in a multiple baseline across participants design, was used. When practice on a set was completed, an assessment of endurance, stability, application, generalisation to the other set and maintenance was conducted. Practice led to improvements that were maintained. Participants achieved learning rates above 30% per week, which is a minimum expectation in Precision Teaching. Practice on one set affected performance on the other, and the order of practice was an important variable. The See-Say channel set led to better generalisation outcomes while performance was stronger on the See-Write.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)375-398
Number of pages24
JournalBritish Journal of Special Education
Issue number3
Early online date27 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2022


  • fluency
  • Precision Teaching
  • RESA
  • special education
  • standard celeration chart

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