Investigations and outcomes for olfactory disorders

Louis Luke, Liam Lee, Lavandan Jegatheeswaran, Carl Philpott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
12 Downloads (Pure)


Purpose of Review: To provide a detailed overview of the investigations and core outcome measures for olfactory disorders.

Recent Findings: Olfactory disorders can have a detrimental impact to the quality of life of patients. There are a wide range of causes of olfactory loss including sinonasal conditions, idiopathic, post-head trauma or infection. This review highlights the key investigations and reasoning for their use to clinically assess and research patients with olfactory disorders. In addition, this review outlines the core outcome measures for olfaction that will help inform future research in olfactory disorders.

Summary: A systematic approach with history taking and examination particularly with nasal endoscopy can determine the cause of the olfactory disorder in most cases. Specific olfactory disorder questionnaires can demonstrate the impact on quality of life, while psychophysical testing can objectively assess and monitor olfaction over time. Olfactory-evoked potentials and functional MRI are reserved for research, whereas CT and MRI imaging are used depending on history and examination. A core outcome set for olfaction has been developed that will help standardise the outcome measures used in olfaction and olfactory disorders research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)377–384
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Otorhinolaryngology Reports
Issue number4
Early online date29 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Anosmia
  • Hyposmia
  • Investigation
  • Olfaction
  • Olfactory disorders
  • Outcome

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