It's all part of the customer journey: The impact of augmented reality, chatbots, and social media on the body image and self‐esteem of Generation Z female consumers

Nisreen Ameen, Jun-Hwa Cheah, Satish Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)
24 Downloads (Pure)


Research is needed to identify novel ways to influence Generation Z female consumers' behavior when they interact with various technologies. This study investigates how experiences of using augmented reality, artificial intelligence-enabled chatbots, and social media when interacting with beauty brands affect body image, self-esteem, and purchase behavior among female consumers in Generation Z. Through three studies, we propose and test a model drawing on social comparison theory. In Study 1, a survey was completed by Generation Z women (n = 1118). In Study 2 and Study 3, two laboratory experiments were conducted with Generation Z women in Malaysia (n = 250 and n = 200). We show that (1) Generation Z women's perceived augmentation positively affects their body image, self-esteem, and actual purchase behavior; (2) although trust in social media celebrities positively affects Generation Z women's body image and self-esteem, the addictive use of social media does not have significant effects; (3) the chatbot support type (assistant vs. friend) has a significant impact on these women's experience; and (4) brand attachment, reputation, and awareness do not have significant effects. This article provides important implications for theory and practice on the behavior of Generation Z females when interacting with various technologies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2110-2129
Number of pages20
JournalPsychology and Marketing
Issue number11
Early online date5 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • Generation Z
  • artificial intelligence
  • augmented reality
  • chatbot
  • self-esteem
  • social media

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