Kat-ARC accelerated 4D flow CMR: clinical validation for transvalvular flow and peak velocity assessment

Hosamadin Assadi, Bhalraam Uthayachandran, Rui Li, James Wardley, Tha H. Nyi , Ciaran Grafton-Clarke, Andrew J. Swift, Ana Beatriz Solana, Jean-Paul Aben, Kurian Thampi, David Hewson, Chris Sawh, Richard Greenwood, Marina Hughes, Bahman Kasmai, Liang Zhong, Marcus Flather, Vassilios Vassiliou, Pankaj Garg

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Background: To validate the k-adaptive-t autocalibrating reconstruction for Cartesian sampling (kat-ARC), an exclusive sparse reconstruction technique for four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) using conservation of mass principle applied to transvalvular flow.  

Methods: This observational retrospective study (2020/21-075) was approved by the local ethics committee at the University of East Anglia. Consent was waived. Thirty-five patients who had a clinical CMR scan were included. CMR protocol included cine and 4D flow using Kat-ARC acceleration factor 6. No respiratory navigation was applied. For validation, the agreement between mitral net flow (MNF) and the aortic net flow (ANF) was investigated. Additionally, we checked the agreement between peak aortic valve velocity derived by 4D flow and that derived by continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography in 20 patients.  

Results: The median age of our patient population was 63 years (interquartile range [IQR] 54–73), and 18/35 (51%) were male. Seventeen (49%) patients had mitral regurgitation, and seven (20%) patients had aortic regurgitation. Mean acquisition time was 8 ± 4 min. MNF and ANF were comparable: 60 mL (51−78) versus 63 mL (57−77), p = 0.310). There was an association between MNF and ANF (rho = 0.58, p < 0.001). Peak aortic valve velocity by Doppler and 4D flow were comparable (1.40 m/s, [1.30−1.75] versus 1.46 m/s [1.25−2.11], p = 0.602) and also correlated with each other (rho = 0.77, p < 0.001).  

Conclusions: Kat-ARC accelerated 4D flow CMR quantified transvalvular flow in accordance with the conservation of mass principle and is primed for clinical translation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number46
JournalEuropean Radiology
Publication statusPublished - 22 Sep 2022


  • aortic valve
  • Blood flow velocity
  • Echocardiography (Doppler),
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Mitral valve
  • Echocardiography (Doppler)
  • Aortic valve

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