The Amazon rainforest is considered the largest reservoir of culicids and arboviruses in the world. It has been under intense human-driven alteration, especially in the so-called “Arc of Deforestation”, located in the Eastern and Southern regions. The emergence and transmission of infectious diseases are increasing, potentially due to land use change. We used landscape-scale mosquito surveillance across a forest fragmentation gradient in the Southern Amazon to evaluate the relationship between forest disturbance and the composition and structure of mosquito communities with a particular focus on the potential for arbovirus emergence in the region. Generalized Linear Models and Logistic Regression were used to associate the degree of landscape disturbance with arbovirus vectors richness and abundance. A total of 1,960 culicids, belonging to 50 species, were collected from 2015 to 2016. Among these species, 20 have been associated with the transmission of arboviruses. Our results show an association of land use, more specifically small size of forest remnants with more irregular shape and higher edge density, with the increase of arbovirus vectors richness and abundance. Six species of mosquito vectors exhibited a higher probability of occurrence in landscapes with medium or high degrees of disturbance. Our results indicate that land use change influences mosquito communities with potential implications for the emergence of arboviruses.