Late Refills During the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy Predict Mortality and Program Failure Among HIV-Infected Adults in Urban Zambia

Michael J Vinikoor, Linnaea Schuttner, Crispin Moyo, Michelle Li, Patrick Musonda, Lottie M Hachaambwa, Jeffrey S A Stringer, Benjamin H Chi

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract We evaluated the association of the number of late antiretroviral therapy (ART) refills with patient outcomes in a large public-sector human immunodeficiency virus treatment program in Lusaka, Zambia. Using pharmacy data routinely collected during 2004-2010, we calculated the number of late refills during the initial year of ART. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression to examine the association between the number of late refills and death or program failure (i.e., death, loss to follow-up, or program withdrawal) >12 months after ART initiation, with and without stratification by the medication possession ratio (MPR) during the initial year of ART. Of 53,015 adults who received ART for ≥12 months (median follow-up duration, 86.1 months; interquartile range, 53.2-128.2 months), 26,847 (50.6%) had 0 late refills, 16,762 (31.6%) had 1, 6,505 (12.3%) had 2, and 2,901 (5.5%) had ≥3. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that ≥3 late refills was associated with a greater mortality risk than 1 and 2 late refills (p
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-77
Number of pages4
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number1
Early online date10 Aug 2013
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014

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