This paper examines the attempts by Malaysia to foster production by national automotive producers in a global industry dominated by a small number of major multinationals. Despite the use of a wide range of industrial policies, both standard import-substituting ones and more targeted policies, the main national producer, Proton, has been unable successfully to enter the automotive global value chain. We argue that Malaysia is probably faced with a choice of accepting foreign majority ownership, as with its second national producer, Perodua, or reconciling itself to Proton lagging in both technology and marketing.
- global value chain
- industrial policy