Listening to women: Experiences of using closed-loop in type 1 diabetes pregnancy

Julia Lawton, Barbara Kimbell, Mia Closs, Sara Hartnell, Tara T. M. Lee, Anna R. Dover, Rebecca M. Reynolds, Corinne Collett, Katharine Barnard-Kelly, Roman Hovorka, David Rankin, Helen R. Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Recent high-profile calls have emphasized that women's experiences should be considered in maternity care provisioning. We explored women's experiences of using closed-loop during type 1 diabetes (T1D) pregnancy to inform decision-making about antenatal rollout and guidance and support given to future users.

Methods: We interviewed 23 closed-loop participants in the Automated insulin Delivery Among Pregnant women with T1D (AiDAPT) trial after randomization to closed-loop and ∼20 weeks later. Data were analyzed thematically.

Results: Women described how closed-loop lessened the physical and mental demands of diabetes management, enabling them to feel more normal and sleep better. By virtue of spending increased time-in-range, women also worried less about risks to their baby and being judged negatively by health care professionals. Most noted that intensive input and support during early pregnancy had been crucial to adjusting to, and developing confidence in, the technology. Women emphasized that attaining pregnancy glucose targets still required ongoing effort from themselves and the health care team. Women described needing education to help them determine when, and how, to intervene and when to allow the closed-loop to operate without interference. All women reported more enjoyable pregnancy experiences as a result of using closed-loop; some also noted being able to remain longer in paid employment.

Conclusions: Study findings endorse closed-loop use in T1D pregnancy by highlighting how the technology can facilitate positive pregnancy experiences. To realize fully the benefits of closed-loop, pregnant women would benefit from initial intensive oversight and support together with closed-loop specific education and training.

Clinical Trial Registration number: NCT04938557.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)845-855
Number of pages11
JournalDiabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Issue number12
Early online date23 Nov 2023
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Closed-loop
  • Pregnancy
  • Quality-of-life
  • Type I diabetes
  • Women’s experiences

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