Longitudinal change in everyday function and behavioral symptoms in frontotemporal dementia

Claire M. O'Connor, Lindy Clemson, Michael Hornberger, Cristian E. Leyton, John R. Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Eneida Mioshi

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Background: The relationship between behavioral changes and functional decline in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is not well understood.

Methods: Thirty-nine patients (21 behavioral variant FTD [bvFTD], 18 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia [svPPA]) were followed up longitudinally (2–4 years follow-up). Functional (Disability Assessment for Dementia) and behavioral (Cambridge Behavioural Inventory Revised) assessments were included for between-group (pairwise comparisons, mixed model analysis) and within-group analyses (bivariate correlations).

Results: Functionally, patients with bvFTD were more impaired than patients with svPPA at baseline and continued to be at follow-up, despite similar disease duration. By contrast, behavioral impairments differed between patient groups at baseline and at follow-up. At baseline, patients with bvFTD exhibited higher levels of apathy and changes in eating than patients with svPPA; disinhibited and stereotypical behaviors were similar. Over the years, patients with bvFTD showed reduction in disinhibition and stereotypical behavior while apathy and eating changes increased. By contrast, all measured behaviors increased in patients with svPPA over time. Finally, only apathy made longitudinal contributions to functional disability in patients with svPPA, whereas apathy and stereotypical behavior were associated with increased disability in patients with bvFTD.

Conclusions: Despite shared overlapping baseline behavioral symptoms, patients with bvFTD are more functionally impaired than patients with svPPA. Apathy has a strong role in disability for both bvFTD and svPPA, but stereotypical behaviors only contributed to functional deficits in patients with bvFTD. Our findings suggest that rigid/compulsive behaviors may in fact support activity engagement in patients with svPPA. Taken together, our results indicate that interventions to reduce disability in the FTD spectrum require an alternative rationale in comparison to Alzheimer disease dementia, and should carefully weigh the interaction of behavioral symptoms and functional status.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)419-428
JournalNeurology: Clinical Practice
Issue number5
Early online date17 Jun 2016
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016

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