Major data analysis errors invalidate cancer microbiome findings

Abraham Gihawi, Yuchen Ge, Jennifer Lu, Daniela Puiu, Amanda Xu, Colin S. Cooper, Daniel S. Brewer, Mihaela Pertea, Steven L. Salzberg

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27 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

We re-analyzed the data from a recent large-scale study that reported strong correlations between DNA signatures of microbial organisms and 33 different cancer types and that created machine-learning predictors with near-perfect accuracy at distinguishing among cancers. We found at least two fundamental flaws in the reported data and in the methods: (i) errors in the genome database and the associated computational methods led to millions of false-positive findings of bacterial reads across all samples, largely because most of the sequences identified as bacteria were instead human; and (ii) errors in the transformation of the raw data created an artificial signature, even for microbes with no reads detected, tagging each tumor type with a distinct signal that the machine-learning programs then used to create an apparently accurate classifier. Each of these problems invalidates the results, leading to the conclusion that the microbiome-based classifiers for identifying cancer presented in the study are entirely wrong. These flaws have subsequently affected more than a dozen additional published studies that used the same data and whose results are likely invalid as well.
Original languageEnglish
JournalmBIO
Volume14
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Oct 2023

Keywords

  • bioinformatics
  • cancer
  • computational biology
  • KEYWORDS microbiome
  • metagenomics

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