Mathematical modeling and validation of retransmission-based mutant MQTT for improving quality of service in developing smart cities

Jawad Ali, Mohammad Haseeb Zafar, Chaminda Hewage, Syed Raheel Hassan, Rameez Asif

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)


Unreliable networks often use excess bandwidth for data integration in smart cities. For this purpose, Messaging Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) with a certain quality of service (QoS) is employed. Data integrity and data security are frequently compromised for reducing bandwidth usage while designing integrated applications. Thus, for a reliable and secure integrated Internet of Everything (IoE) service, a range of network parameters are conditioned to achieve the required quality of a deliverable service. In this work, a QoS-0-based MQTT is developed in such a manner that the transparent MQTT protocol uses Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-based connectivity with various rules for the retransmission of contents if the requests are not entertained for a fixed duration. The work explores the ways to improve the overall content delivery probability. The parameters are examined over a transparent gateway-based TCP network after developing a mathematical model for the proposed retransmission-based mutant QoS-0. The probability model is then verified by an actual physical network where the repeated content delivery is explored at VM-based MQTT, local network-based broker and a remote server. The results show that the repeated transmission of contents from the sender improves the content delivery probability over the unreliable MQTT-based Internet of Things (IoT) for developing smart cities’ applications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9751
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 12 Dec 2022

Cite this