Metacognitive beliefs in primary insomnia: developing and validating the Metacognitions Questionnaire--Insomnia (MCQ-I)

Joanne Waine, Niall M Broomfield, Stephen Banham, Colin A Espie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


Patients with Primary insomnia often experience intrusive, worrisome cognitive activity in the pre-sleep period. Metacognitive beliefs may explain this yet no valid reliable scale exists. The present study, therefore, developed the Metacognitions Questionnaire--Insomnia (MCQ-I). Following initial metacognitive insomnia profiling interviews, item refinement produced a preliminary 60-item MCQ-I. This was administered to 34 primary insomniacs and 37 normal sleepers. Psychometric data indicate primary insomniac patients score significantly higher than normal sleepers on MCQ-I. Test-retest reliability is good. Face, concurrent, construct and discriminant validity, scale sensitivity and specificity are all acceptable. Further research with larger primary insomnia and normal sleeper samples is now required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-23
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Issue number1
Early online date19 Mar 2008
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009


  • Adult
  • Awareness/physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Knowledge
  • Male
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires/standards

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