The PPARγ agonists, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), have anti-inflammatory properties as well as increasing insulin sensitivity. This has widened their therapeutic scope to treat inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis in addition to Type 2 Diabetes. TZDs are known to reduce monocyte/macrophage expression of Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which is implicated in atherosclerotic plaque destabilization. This study aims to identify other metalloproteinase genes of the ADAM (A Disintegin And Metalloproteinase) and ADAMTS families that are regulated by PPARγ or RXR agonists, which are potentially important in type 2 diabetes and/or related atherosclerosis. The synthetic PPARγ agonist, GW7845, and the natural agonist 15d-PGJ2, suppressed PMA stimulated MMP-9 in human monocyte-like cells (THP-1) only in the presence of 9-cis-retinoic acid. Quantitative Real-Time PCR showed that this reduction was regulated at the mRNA level. Expression of ADAMs 8, 9, and 17 were increased, and ADAM15 was decreased by stimulation of THP-1 with PMA, although these ADAMs were not regulated by PPARγ or RXR agonists. PMA-induced ADAM28 expression was further enhanced by the addition of 9-cis-retinoic acid. ADAMTS4, implicated in rheumatoid arthritis, was expressed in THP-1 cells, and significantly increased after 24 h of PMA stimulation. ADAMTS4 expression was suppressed by both PPARγ and RXR agonists and was undetectable when the agonists were combined. Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with the PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, suggests that PPARγ plays subtly different roles in the regulation of MMP-9, ADAMTS4 and ADAM28 gene expression. These results indicate that PPARγ and RXR agonists have complex effects on monocyte metalloproteinase expression, which may have implications for therapeutic strategies.