Several bacteria and viruses remodel cellular membranes to form compartments specialised for replication. Bacteria replicate within inclusions which recruit membrane vesicles from the secretory pathway to provide nutrients for microbial growth and division. Viruses generate densely packed membrane vesicles called viroplasm which provide a platform to recruit host and viral proteins necessary for replication. This review describes examples where both intracellular bacteria (Salmonella, Chlamydia and Legionella) and viruses (picornaviruses and hepatitis C) recruit membrane vesicles to sites of replication by modulating proteins that control the secretory pathway. In many cases this involves modulation of Rab and Arf GTPases.