Multilayered networks of SalmoNet2 enable strain comparisons of the Salmonella genus on a molecular level

Aline Métris, Jozsef Baranyi, Robert A. Kingsley, Tamas Korcsmaros, Marton Olbei, Balazs Bohar, David Fazekas, Matthew Madgwick, Padhmanand Sudhakar, Isabelle Hautefort

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Serovars of the genus Salmonella primarily evolved as gastrointestinal pathogens in a wide range of hosts. Some serotypes later evolved further, adopting a more invasive lifestyle in a narrower host range associated with systemic infections. A system-level knowledge of these pathogens could identify the complex adaptations associated with the evolution of serovars with distinct pathogenicity, host range, and risk to human health. This promises to aid the design of interventions and serve as a knowledge base in the Salmonella research community. Here, we present SalmoNet2, a major update to SalmoNet1, the first multilayered interaction resource for Salmonella strains, containing protein-protein, transcriptional regulatory, and enzyme-enzyme interactions. The new version extends the number of Salmonella networks from 11 to 20. We now include a strain from the second species in the Salmonella genus, a strain from the Salmonella enterica subspecies arizonae and additional strains of importance from the subspecies enterica, including S. Typhimurium strain D23580, an epidemic multidrug-resistant strain associated with invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis (iNTS). The database now uses strain specific metabolic models instead of a generalized model to highlight differences between strains. The update has increased the coverage of high-quality protein-protein interactions, and enhanced interoperability with other computational resources by adopting standardized formats. The resource website has been updated with tutorials to help researchers analyze their Salmonella data using molecular interaction networks from SalmoNet2. SalmoNet2 is accessible at IMPORTANCE Multilayered network databases collate interaction information from multiple sources, and are powerful both as a knowledge base and subject of analysis. Here, we present SalmoNet2, an integrated network resource containing protein-protein, transcriptional regulatory, and metabolic interactions for 20 Salmonella strains. Key improvements to the update include expanding the number of strains, strain-specific metabolic networks, an increase in high-quality protein-protein interactions, community standard computational formats to help interoperability, and online tutorials to help users analyze their data using SalmoNet2.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere01493-21
Issue number4
Early online date1 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • global regulatory networks
  • host adaptation
  • network resource
  • protein-protein interactions
  • Salmonella

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