Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that typically manifests clinically as an isolated amnestic deficit that progresses to a characteristic dementia syndrome. Advances in neuroimaging research have enabled mapping of diverse molecular, functional, and structural aspects of Alzheimer's disease pathology in ever increasing temporal and regional detail. Accumulating evidence suggests that distinct types of imaging abnormalities related to Alzheimer's disease follow a consistent trajectory during pathogenesis of the disease, and that the first changes can be detected years before the disease manifests clinically. These findings have fuelled clinical interest in the use of specific imaging markers for Alzheimer's disease to predict future development of dementia in patients who are at risk. The potential clinical usefulness of single or multimodal imaging markers is being investigated in selected patient samples from clinical expert centres, but additional research is needed before these promising imaging markers can be successfully translated from research into clinical practice in routine care.