On states and traits in work-family research

Charles Lance, Tracy Griggs, YoungAh Park, Seonghee Cho, Michael Szeman, George Michaelides, Stephen Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Latent state-trait research on work-family conflict confirms that occasion-specific variation in work-related demands is related to corresponding variations in perceptions of work interfering with family (WIF), but WIF also displays moderate (~35%) to substantial (~80%) Trait-like stability over time. What is not clear to date is whether this cross-situational stability in WIF is due to stable respondent characteristics (e.g., personality traits) or intrinsic situational stability in the work environment (e.g., work demands). Results from secondary analyses of four diary study data sets indicated that Trait-based (time-invariant) WIF primarily reflects intrinsic stability in work situations (e.g. especially workload) and to a lesser extent Negative (but not Positive) affect. Results support recent theory and add to a growing body of research on stability in work-family conflict across a variety of time frames. Implications for interventions aimed at ameliorating WIF are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
JournalHuman Performance
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 3 Jun 2024


  • Work Family Conflict
  • Workload
  • Personality
  • Latent State-Trait
  • Trait-State Occasion Model

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