OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of antimicrobial-resistant isolates and the associated resistance mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria from South Western Nigeria.
METHODS: A total of 306 non-duplicate unbiased Gram-negative isolates were recovered from patients admitted to three teaching hospitals in South Western Nigeria in 2011 and 2013. Isolates were from clinical samples as well as from stool samples of inpatients without infection to assess antimicrobial resistance patterns in carriage isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed, and PCR and sequencing were used to identify genes encoding various known β-lactamases. Based on phenotypic and genotypic results, 10 isolates representing the diversity of phenotypes present were selected for whole-genome sequencing (WGS).
RESULTS: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed the following resistance rates: fluoroquinolones, 78.1%; third-generation cephalosporins, 92.2%; and carbapenems, 52.6%. More resistant isolates were isolated from stools of uninfected patients compared with clinical infection specimens. Klebsiella (10%) and Escherichia coli (7%) isolates produced a carbapenemase. WGS of selected isolates identified the presence of globally disseminated clones.
CONCLUSION: This study illustrates a crisis for the use of first-line antimicrobial therapy in Nigerian patients. It is likely that Nigeria is playing a significant role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance owing to its large population with considerable global mobility.