Opening the black box: Presenting a model for evaluating organizational-level interventions

Karina Nielsen, Raymond Randall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

247 Citations (Scopus)


Organizational-level occupational health interventions are often recommended when improvements in working conditions, employee health, and well-being are sought within organizations. Research has revealed that these interventions result in inconsistent effects despite being based on theoretical frameworks. This inconsistency indicates that intervention studies need to be designed to examine directly how and why such interventions bring about change and why they sometimes fail. We argue that intervention studies should include a process evaluation that includes a close examination of the psychological and organizational mechanisms that hinder and facilitate desired intervention outcomes. By drawing on existing intervention literature we present an evidence-based model containing three levels of elements that appear to be crucial in process evaluation. We describe how this model may be applied and developed in future research to identify better the mechanisms that link intervention processes to intervention outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)601-617
Number of pages17
JournalEuropean Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
Issue number5
Early online date17 Jul 2012
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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