Orthorexia nervosa in gay men—the result of a Spanish-Polish eating disorders study

Piotr Karniej, Jesús Pérez, Raúl Juárez-Vela, Iván Santolalla-Arnedo, Vicente Gea-Caballero, Pablo del Pozo-Herce, Anthony Dissen, Michał Czapla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)


Background: The purpose of this exploratory study was to identifying demographic factors and unique predictors of ON e.g., the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the use of social media and the Grindr ® dating application among a sample group of Spanish and Polish identifying gay men.

Methods: The study was conducted in Poland and Spain between March and June 2021 using questionary: ORTO-15. Data was collected using a three-section self-administered questionnaire. The first section contained demographic data, the second part was the Polish and Spanish version of the Orto-15, and the third part was the Polish and Spanish version of the EAT-26.

Results: Total enrollment was 394 gay men. In regression proportional hazards single model, significant predictors of ON were: age (OR = 0.964, 95% CI, 0.944–0.984), BMI (OR = 0.895, 95% CI, 0.848–0.944), staying in an informal relationship compared to being single (OR = 2.138, 95%CI, 1.225–3.732), occasional use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (OR = 4.667, 95%CI, 1.186–18.362) and use of the Grindr application (OR = 5.312, 95%CI, 3.373–8.365). Instagram users had lower risk of ON (OR = 0.479, 95%CI, 0.279–0.822). The multivariate analysis showed that Grindr usages (OR = 4.72; 95%CI, 2.89–7.72) correlated with higher risk of ON. Higher BMI (OR = 0.913, 95%CI, 0.861–0.98) and daily use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (OR = 0.142, 95%CI, 0.03–0.674) is associated with lower risk of ON.

Conclusions: The most important predictors of orthorexia nervosa in gay men are: low BMI and the use of Grindr. The effect of daily usage of PrEP is associated with lower risk, and occasional use is associated with increased risk, of orthorexia nervosa.
Original languageEnglish
Article number58
JournalBMC Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jan 2023


  • Eating disorders
  • Gay
  • Orthorexia nervosa
  • PrEP
  • Stigma

Cite this