Outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections with PER-1 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Warsaw, Poland: further evidence for an international clonal complex

Joanna Empel, Krzysztof Filczak, Agnieszka Mrówka, Waleria Hryniewicz, David M Livermore, Marek Gniadkowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

99 Citations (Scopus)


Forty-one Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) from a hospital in Warsaw, Poland, were analyzed. Thirty-seven isolates from several wards were collected over 9 months in 2003 and 2004. The isolates were recovered from patients with multiple types of infections, mostly respiratory tract and postoperative wound infections. All 41 isolates produced the PER-1 ESBL, originally observed in Turkey but recently also identified in several countries in Europe and the Far East. The bla(PER-1) gene resided within the Tn1213 composite transposon, which was chromosomally located. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed the presence of three separate clones among the isolates. Two of these, corresponding to sequence types (STs) ST244 and ST235, were responsible for parallel outbreaks. Apart from PER-1, all the isolates produced OXA-2 oxacillinase. ST235 isolates additionally expressed a novel enzyme, OXA-74, differing by one amino acid from the OXA-17 ESBL identified originally in PER-1- and OXA-2-positive P. aeruginosa isolates from Ankara, Turkey, in 1992. These earlier Ankara isolates with PER-1, OXA-2, and OXA-17 were also classified into ST235, which is a single-locus variant of two other STs, ST227 and ST230. ST227, ST230, and ST235 all correspond to the recently described clonal complex BG11, which seems to be internationally distributed, having spread in Turkey, Greece, Italy, Hungary, Poland, Sweden, and much of Russia. It is associated with various beta-lactamases, including PER-1 and VIM metalloenzymes. This work further demonstrates the value of MLST of P. aeruginosa.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2829-34
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Clinical Microbiology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2007


  • Bacterial Typing Techniques
  • Chromosomes, Bacterial
  • Cross Infection
  • DNA Transposable Elements
  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Genotype
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Poland
  • Pseudomonas Infections
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Respiratory Tract Infections
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Surgical Wound Infection
  • beta-Lactamases

Cite this