Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P MRS) and cardiovascular disease: The importance of energy

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Background and Objectives: The heart is the organ with the highest metabolic demand in the body, and it relies on high ATP turnover and efficient energy substrate utilisation in order to function normally. The derangement of myocardial energetics may lead to abnormalities in cardiac metabolism, which herald the symptoms of heart failure (HF). In addition, phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) is the only available non-invasive method that allows clinicians and researchers to evaluate the myocardial metabolic state in vivo. This review summarises the importance of myocardial energetics and provides a systematic review of all the available research studies utilising 31P MRS to evaluate patients with a range of cardiac pathologies. Materials and Methods: We have performed a systematic review of all available studies that used 31P MRS for the investigation of myocardial energetics in cardiovascular disease. Results: A systematic search of the Medline database, the Cochrane library, and Web of Science yielded 1092 results, out of which 62 studies were included in the systematic review. The 31P MRS has been used in numerous studies and has demonstrated that impaired myocardial energetics is often the beginning of pathological processes in several cardiac pathologies. Conclusions: The 31P MRS has become a valuable tool in the understanding of myocardial metabolic changes and their impact on the diagnosis, risk stratification, and prognosis of patients with cardiovascular diseases.
Original languageEnglish
Article number174
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2023


  • cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
  • cardiovascular disease
  • cardiovascular imaging
  • myocardial energetics
  • phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( P MRS)

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