There are several different approaches to physiotherapy treatment after stroke. These can broadly be divided into approaches that are based on neurophysiological, motor learning, or orthopaedic principles. Some physiotherapists base their treatment on a single approach, whereas others use a mixture of components from a number of different approaches. The practical application of these approaches can result in substantial differences in patient treatment. At present, the Bobath Approach, based on neurophysiological principles, probably remains the most widely used approach in the Western world.1–5 However, there is a lack of convincing evidence to support any specific physiotherapy treatment approach.3,6 This systematic review aims to assess the effects of physiotherapy treatment if it is based on orthopaedic, motor learning, or neurophysiological principles, or on a mixture of these treatment principles.