Plant immune networks

Bruno Pok Man Ngou, Jonathan D. G. Jones, Pingtao Ding

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

85 Citations (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


Plants have both cell-surface and intracellular receptors to recognize diverse self- and non-self molecules. Cell-surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize extracellular pathogen-/damage-derived molecules or apoplastic pathogen-derived effectors. Intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) recognize pathogen effectors. Activation of both PRRs and NLRs elevates defense gene expression and accumulation of the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA), which results in SA-dependent transcriptional reprogramming. These receptors, together with their coreceptors, form networks to mediate downstream immune responses. In addition, cell-surface and intracellular immune systems are interdependent and function synergistically to provide robust resistance against pathogens. Here, we summarize the interactions between these immune systems and attempt to provide a holistic picture of plant immune networks. We highlight current challenges and discuss potential new research directions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)255-273
Number of pages19
JournalTrends in Plant Science
Issue number3
Early online date18 Sep 2021
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • crosstalk
  • effector-triggered immunity (ETI)
  • network
  • pattern-triggered immunity (PTI)
  • plant immunity
  • salicylic acid

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