Cities of the twenty-first century will expose buildings to environments that are quite different from those experienced over preceding periods. The recent reduction in sulfur dioxide in cities and continued pressure to lower the emissions of combustion generated pollutants creates a potential for climate induced deterioration, by contrast, to be more important. Given that climate will likely change over the next hundred years, recession rates of calcareous stones have been predicted for Oviedo (Spain), Paris and Prague over the period 1981–2099. This can give guidance as to the likely change in balance of future threat. The Lipfert, ICP, and MULTI-ASSESS functions were used to calculate recession from estimates of climate and air quality. It is likely that under a continued decline or stable levels of pollution, recession rates having reached low values will remain largely unchanged over the coming century, despite likely changes in climate. Although the functions adopted disagree in a quantitative sense, there is evidence that they were reasonably concordant in the last decades of the twentieth century. In a cleaner future their different underlying assumptions lead to poorer agreement.