Primula vulgaris (primrose) genome assembly, annotation and gene expression, with comparative genomics on the heterostyly supergene

Jonathan M. Cocker, Jonathan Wright, Jinhong Li, David Swarbreck, Sarah Dyer, Mario Caccamo, Philip M. Gilmartin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

Primula vulgaris (primrose) exhibits heterostyly: plants produce self-incompatible pin- or thrum-form flowers, with anthers and stigma at reciprocal heights. Darwin concluded that this arrangement promotes insect-mediated cross-pollination; later studies revealed control by a cluster of genes, or supergene, known as the S (Style length) locus. The P. vulgaris S locus is absent from pin plants and hemizygous in thrum plants (thrum-specific); mutation of S locus genes produces self-fertile homostyle flowers with anthers and stigma at equal heights. Here, we present a 411 Mb P. vulgaris genome assembly of a homozygous inbred long homostyle, representing ~87% of the genome. We annotate over 24,000 P. vulgaris genes, and reveal more genes up-regulated in thrum than pin flowers. We show reduced genomic read coverage across the S locus in other Primula species, including P. veris, where we define the conserved structure and expression of the S locus genes in thrum. Further analysis reveals the S locus has elevated repeat content (64%) compared to the wider genome (37%). Our studies suggest conservation of S locus genetic architecture in Primula, and provide a platform for identification and evolutionary analysis of the S locus and downstream targets that regulate heterostyly in diverse heterostylous species.

Original languageEnglish
Article number17942
JournalScientific Reports
Volume8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Dec 2018

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