Processing-Induced Disorder in Pharmaceutical Materials

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter focuses on the major types of pharmaceutical processing methods that have been widely reported to produce disordered material either intentionally or unintentionally. Milling is one of the most frequently used unit operations used by the pharmaceutical industry for reducing the particle size of solids. Thermal processing techniques are mainly used for controlling or improving the release and the subsequent bioavailability of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Techniques such as melt-mixing, spray-congealing, sintering, melt-granulation, and hot-melt extrusion (HME) have developed and evolved rapidly for large-scale pharmaceutical production. Solvent-evaporation-based methods are important processing techniques for both raw materials, such as crystallization of the raw drug, and formulation manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry. The chapter discusses the processing that can potentially induce the formation of the disordered state during the manufacture of formulations. The widely used solvent-evaporation-based processing techniques in pharmaceutical formulation production include spray-drying, freeze-drying, film casting, and film coating.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDisordered Pharmaceutical Materials
EditorsMarc Descamps
ISBN (Electronic)9783527652693
ISBN (Print)9783527331253
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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