Prognostic tools for early mortality in hemorrhagic stroke: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Katharina Mattishent, Chun Shing Kwok, Liban Ashkir, Kelum Pelpola, Phyo Kyaw Myint, Yoon Kong Loke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
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Background and Purpose: Several risk scores have been developed to predict mortality in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to systematically determine the performance of published prognostic tools. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for prognostic models (published between 2004 and April 2014) used in predicting early mortality (<6 months) after ICH. We evaluated the discrimination performance of the tools through a random-effects meta-analysis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) or c-statistic. We evaluated the following components of the study validity: study design, collection of prognostic variables, treatment pathways, and missing data. Results: We identified 11 articles (involving 41,555 patients) reporting on the accuracy of 12 different tools for predicting mortality in ICH. Most studies were either retrospective or post-hoc analyses of prospectively collected data; all but one produced validation data. The Hemphill-ICH score had the largest number of validation cohorts (9 studies involving 3,819 patients) within our systematic review and showed good performance in 4 countries, with a pooled AUC of 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.77-0.85]. We identified several modified versions of the Hemphill-ICH score, with the ICH-Grading Scale (GS) score appearing to be the most promising variant, with a pooled AUC across four studies of 0.87 (95% CI=0.84-0.90). Subgroup testing found statistically significant differences between the AUCs obtained in studies involving Hemphill-ICH and ICH-GS scores (p=0.01). Conclusions: Our meta-analysis evaluated the performance of 12 ICH prognostic tools and found greater supporting evidence for 2 models (Hemphill-ICH and ICH-GS), with generally good performance overall.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-348
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Neurology
Issue number4
Early online date6 Aug 2015
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2015


  • stroke
  • prognostic scores
  • risk prediction model
  • mortality

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