Protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of independent pharmacist prescribing in care homes: the CHIPPS study

Christine M. Bond, Richard Holland, David P Alldred, Antony Arthur, Garry Barton, Annie Blyth, James Desborough, Joanna C. Ford, Christine Handford, Helen J. Hill, Carmel M. Hughes, Vivienne Maskrey, Kate Massey, Phyo K. Myint, Nigel Norris, Fiona Poland, Lee Shepstone, David Turner, Arnold Zermansky, David Wright

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BACKGROUND: Prescribing, monitoring and administration of medicines in care homes could be improved. Research has identified the need for one person to assume overall responsibility for the management of medicines within each care home. and shown that a pharmacist independent prescriber service is feasible in this context. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a pharmacist-independent prescribing service in care homes compared to usual general practitioner (GP)-led care. OBJECTIVES: To perform a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) with an internal pilot to determine the intervention's effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and enable modelling beyond the end of the trial. METHODS: This protocol is for a cluster RCT with a 3-month internal pilot to confirm that recruitment is achievable, and there are no safety concerns. The unit of randomisation is a triad comprising a pharmacist-independent prescriber (PIP) based in a GP practice with sufficient registered patients resident in one or more care homes to allow recruitment of an average of 20 participants. In the intervention group, the PIP will, in collaboration with the GP: assume responsibility for prescribing and managing residents' medicines including medication review and pharmaceutical care planning; support systematic ordering and administration in the care home, GP practice and supplying pharmacy; train care home and GP practice staff; communicate with GP practice, care home, supplying community pharmacy and study team. The intervention will last 6 months. The primary outcome will be resident falls at 6 months. Secondary outcomes include resident health-related quality of life, falls at 3 months, medication burden, medication appropriateness, mortality and hospitalisations. A full health economic analysis will be undertaken. The target sample size is 880 residents (440) in each arm) from 44 triads. This number is sufficient to detect a decrease in fall rate from 1.5 per individual to 1.178 (relative reduction of 21%) with 80% power and an ICC of 0.05 or less. DISCUSSION: Recruitment is on-going and the trial should complete in early 2020. The trial results will have implications for the future management of residents in care homes and the ongoing implementation of independent pharmacist prescribing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ID: 17847169. Registered on 15 December 2017.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jan 2020


  • Care homes
  • Older people
  • Pharmacist prescribing
  • Polypharmacy
  • Randomised controlled trial

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