Psychometric properties of the controlling coach behaviors scale for Japanese athletes

Hiroshi Matsumoto, Kunio Kono, Takayuki Shibukura, Kimberley J. Bartholomew

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Two studies examined the validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale (CCBS). The CCBS is a multidimensional self-report measure designed to evaluate sports coaches’ controlling interpersonal style from the perspective of self-determination theory (SDT). It comprises 15 items measuring the controlling use of rewards, negative conditional regard, intimidation, and excessive personal control on a seven-point Likert scale. The study 1 sample comprised 526 university student-athletes (Mage = 19.59 years, SD = ±0.94, 364 females) who completed the Japanese CCBS, which was developed through back-translation. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the tenability of the hypothesized factor structure of the Japanese CCBS (CFI=.927; NNFI=.909; RMSEA=.079). Moreover, the results supported the invariance of the scale across sex, sport types, and competitive levels. The subscale internal consistency and discriminant validity scores were all acceptable. Test-retest reliability evidence was obtained in Study 2 (N=108), suggesting a positive and significant intraclass correlation between the pre-test and the post-test CCBS (ICC range: .65–.87). These findings support the Japanese CCBS as a valid and reliable measure for use in research which will enhance our understanding of coaches’ controlling interpersonal styles in sports.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)130-136
Number of pages7
JournalAsian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Issue number2
Early online date21 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2023


  • Coaches’ interpersonal style
  • Reliability
  • Scale development
  • Self-determination theory
  • Validity

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