Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale in the sport context

Isabel Castillo, Ines Tomas, Nikos Ntoumanis, Kimberley Bartholomew, Joan L. Duda, Isabel Balaguer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this research was to translate into Spanish and examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale (CCBS) in male soccer players. The CCBS is a questionnaire designed to assess athletes' perceptions of sports coaches' controlling interpersonal style from the perspective of the self-determination theory. Method: Study 1 tested the factorial structure of the translated scale using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and provided evidence of discriminant validity. Studies 2 and 3 examined the invariance across time and across competitive level via multi-sample CFA. Reliability analyses were also conducted. Results: The CFA results revealed that a four-factor model was acceptable, indicating that a controlling interpersonal style is a multidimensional construct represented by four separate and related controlling coaching strategies. Further, results supported the invariance of the CCBS factor structure across time and competitive level and provided support for the internal consistency of the scale. Conclusions: Overall, the CCBS demonstrated adequate internal consistency, as well as good factorial validity. The Spanish version of the CCBS represents a valid and reliable adaptation of the instrument, which can be confidently used to measure soccer players' perceptions of their coaches' controlling interpersonal style.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)409-414
Number of pages6
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2014


  • Self-determination theory
  • rewards
  • negative conditional regard
  • intimidation
  • personal control
  • scale adaptation

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