Pure, single phase, high crystalline, chamfered-edge zeolite 4A synthesized from coal fly ash for use as a builder in detergents

K. S. Hui, C. Y. H. Chao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Single phase chamfered-edge zeolite 4A samples in pure form with a high crystallinity were synthesized by applying step-change of synthesis temperature during hydrothermal treatment of coal fly ash. The calcium binding capacity of these zeolite 4A samples (prepared from coal fly ash) and the commercial detergent grade zeolite 4A were tested for usage as a detergent builder. The results show that these zeolite 4A samples behaved similarly as the commercial one in removing calcium ions during the washing cycle. Moreover, from the leaching tests (evaluation of toxicological safety), the results show that these zeolite 4A samples leached the same elements (Sb, As, Se and Tl) as the commercial one with the concentrations in the same order of magnitude. This shows that the toxicological effect of the coal fly ash converted zeolite 4A was not worse than that of the commercial sample. Finally, economic and environmental aspects of converting coal fly ash to useful products were discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)401-409
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume137
Issue number1
Early online date6 Mar 2006
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2006

Keywords

  • Builder
  • Cost analysis
  • Environmental
  • Recycle
  • Zeolite 4A

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