PV temperature prediction incorporating the effect of humidity and cooling due to seawater flow and evaporation on modules simulating floating PV conditions

Socrates Kaplanis, Eleni Kaplani, John K. Kaldellis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The temperature prediction for floating PV (FPV) must account for the effect of humidity. In this work, PV temperature prediction for steady-state Tpv and transient conditions Tpv(t) incorporates the effect of humidity and cooling due to seawater (s.w.) splashing and evaporation on PV modules. The proposed formulas take as main inputs the in-plane solar irradiance, wind speed, ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH), and s.w. temperature. The transient effects of s.w. splashing and the evaporation of the s.w. layer from the module are theoretically described considering the layer’s thickness using Navier–Stokes equations. Tpv and Tpv(t) measurements were taken before and after s.w. splashing on c-Si modules at the seashore and inland. PV temperature predictions compared to measured values showed very good agreement. The 55% RH at the seashore versus 45% inland caused the Tpv to decrease by 18%. The Tpv(t) at the end of the s.w. flow of 50–75 mL/s/m on the module at the seashore was 35–51% lower than the Tpv inland. This Tpv(t) profile depends on the s.w. splashing, lasts for about 1 min, and is attributed to higher convection, water cooling, and evaporation on the modules. The PV efficiency at FPV conditions was estimated to be 4–11.5% higher compared to inland.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4756
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2023


  • seawater PV cooling
  • evaporation cooling
  • humidity enhanced convection
  • PV temperature profiles
  • FPV

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