Radiological evidence for the triple bundle anterior cruciate ligament

James W MacKay, Harry Whitehead, Andoni P Toms

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11 Citations (Scopus)


The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has traditionally been described as having two bundles-one anteromedial and one posterolateral. This has been challenged by studies proposing the existence of a third, intermediate, bundle with distinct functional significance, an arrangement that has been described in a number of domesticated animal species. No radiological evidence for the triple bundle ACL has previously been described. A prevalence study was carried out on 73 consecutive human knee magnetic resonance (MR) studies to determine the number of visible bundles, excluding individuals with a history of ACL injury or mucoid degeneration. A triple bundle ACL was demonstrated in 15 out of 73 human knees (20.5%, 95% confidence interval 12.9-31.2%). This is the first radiological description of the human triple bundle ACL. There was MR imaging evidence of a triple bundle ACL in approximately one fifth of human knees in this study. Clin. Anat. 27:1097-1102, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1097-1102
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Anatomy
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014


  • anterior cruciate ligament
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • knee anatomy

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