Genomic neighbour typing can be used to infer the antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance of a bacterial sample based on the genomes of closest relatives. Combined with MinION sequencing, it can rapidly determine microbial resistance for clinical samples within 4 h.
Surveillance of drug-resistant bacteria is essential for healthcare providers to deliver effective empirical antibiotic therapy. However, traditional molecular epidemiology does not typically occur on a timescale that could affect patient treatment and outcomes. Here, we present a method called 'genomic neighbour typing' for inferring the phenotype of a bacterial sample by identifying its closest relatives in a database of genomes with metadata. We show that this technique can infer antibiotic susceptibility and resistance for both Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We implemented this with rapid k-mer matching, which, when used on Oxford Nanopore MinION data, can run in real time. This resulted in the determination of resistance within 10 min (91% sensitivity and 100% specificity for S. pneumoniae and 81% sensitivity and 100% specificity for N. gonorrhoeae from isolates with a representative database) of starting sequencing, and within 4 h of sample collection (75% sensitivity and 100% specificity for S. pneumoniae) for clinical metagenomic sputum samples. This flexible approach has wide application for pathogen surveillance and may be used to greatly accelerate appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment.