The rise of antibacterial drug resistance means treatment options are becoming increasingly limited. We must find ways to tackle these hard-to-treat drug-resistant and biofilm infections. With the lack of new antibacterial drugs (such as antibiotics) reaching the clinics, research has switched focus to exploring alternative strategies. One such strategy is antibacterial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), a system that relies on light, oxygen, and a non-toxic dye (photosensitiser) to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. This technique has already been shown capable of handling both drug-resistant and biofilm infections but has limited clinical approval to date, which is in part due to the low bioavailability and selectivity of hydrophobic photosensitisers. Nanotechnology-based techniques have the potential to address the limitations of current aPDT, as already well-documented in anti-cancer PDT. Here, we review recent advances in nanoparticle-based targeting tactics for aPDT.
- Antibacterial photodynamic therapy