Redesign and initial validation of an instrument to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise: The Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2

Costas I. Karageorghis, David Holland, Peter C. Terry, Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis, Andrew M. Lane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

130 Citations (Scopus)


In the present study, a measure to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise was redesigned, extending previous research efforts (Karageorghis et al., 1999Karageorghis, C. I., Terry, P. C. and Lane, A. M. 1999. Development and initial validation of an instrument to assess the motivational qualities of music in exerciseand sport: The Brunel Music Rating Inventory. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17: 713–724.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar]). The original measure, the Brunel MusicRating Inventory (BMRI), had shown limitations in its factor structure and its applicability to non-experts in music selection. Redesign of the BMRI used in-depth interviews with eight participants (mean age 31.9 years, s = 8.9 years) to establish the initial item pool, which was examined using a series of confirmatory factor analyses. A single-factor model provided a good fit across three musical selections with different motivational qualities (comparative fit index, CFI: 0.95–0.98; standardized root mean residual, SRMR: 0.03–0.05). The single-factor model also demonstrated acceptable fit across two independent samples and both sexes using one piece of music (CFI: 0.86–1.00; SRMR: 0.04–0.07). The BMRI was designed for experts in selecting music for exercise (e.g. dance aerobic instructors), whereas the BMRI-2 can be used both by exercise instructors and participants. The psychometric properties of the BMRI-2 are stronger than those of the BMRI and it is easier to use. The BMRI-2 provides a valid and internally consistent tool by which musiccan be selected to accompany a bout of exercise or a training session. Furthermore, the BMRI-2 enables researchers to standardize music in experimental protocols involving exercise-related tasks.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)899-909
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2006

Cite this