Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the experiential avoidance in caregiving questionnaire (EACQ)

Hiroshi Morimoto, Naoko Kishita, Hikaru Kondo, Nélida Tanaka, Yu Abe, Takashi Muto

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This study developed the Japanese version of the Experiential Avoidance in Caregiving Questionnaire (J-EACQ) and assessed its reliability and validity. A 2-wave longitudinal study with an interval of two weeks was conducted with Japanese dementia family caregivers (n = 355 at T1; n = 246 at T2). Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses (CFA/EFA) were performed, and the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability were assessed. The convergent and discriminant validity were examined by correlations between the J-EACQ and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) and measures assessing related constructs (e.g., cognitive fusion). The incremental validity was assessed through the hierarchical regression analysis examining whether the J-EACQ predicts depression/anxiety over and above the AAQ-II. The CFA demonstrated a poor fit to our data for the original factor model. The EFA resulted in a new factor model retaining a similar factor structure but with reduced items. Both models showed similar acceptable levels of internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. However, the original model had a less systematic error and a higher incremental validity. The J-EACQ has acceptable reliability and validity. It is recommended to use the original factor model to allow for international comparisons in future research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)160-169
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Early online date18 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Acceptance and commitment therapy
  • Dementia
  • Experiential avoidance in caregiving questionnaire
  • Family caregivers
  • Japanese

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