Religious toleration and ecclesiastical independence in revolutionary Britain, Bermuda and the Bahamas

Polly Ha

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3 Citations (Scopus)


By the mid-seventeenth century, radical protestant tolerationists in Britain and the British Atlantic began to conceive of religious liberty as a civil liberty applicable to all subjects, in contrast to contemporary puritans who limited toleration to orthodox protestants. This essay seeks to explain why certain puritans, however small in number, came to adopt radical views on toleration in contrast to the religious mainstream in the Anglophone world. Drawing upon a longer history of ecclesiastical independence than considered in the existing scholarship on religious toleration, it identifies a hitherto unexplored relationship between ecclesiastical independence in England and the Atlantic World.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)807-827
Number of pages21
JournalChurch History
Issue number4
Early online date13 Nov 2015
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015


  • Religious Toleration
  • Freedom
  • Independence
  • North America
  • Revolutionary Britain

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