Screening for intellectual disabilities and/or autism amongst older children and young adults: A systematic review of tools for use in Africa

Eziafakaku Uchechukwu Nwokolo, Peter E. Langdon, Glynis H. Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


There are many well-developed screening tools for both intellectual disabilities and autism, but they may not be culturally appropriate for use within Africa. Our specific aims were to complete a systematic review to (1) describe and critically appraise short screening tools for the detection of intellectual disabilities and autism for older children and young adults, (2) consider the psychometric properties of these tools, and (3) judge the cultural appropriateness of these tools for use within Africa. Six screening tools for intellectual disabilities and twelve for autism were identified and appraised using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) guidelines. We identified two screening tools which appeared appropriate for validation for use within African nations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)384–406
Number of pages23
JournalReview Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Issue number2
Early online date10 Sep 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • Adolescent
  • Africa
  • Autism
  • Diagnosis
  • Intellectual disabilities
  • Screening

Cite this