The ciliate Philasterides dicentrarchi has been previously identified as a new agent of scuticociliatosis in marine fish. The parasite can cause high mortalities in fish reared on farms or kept in aquariums. P. dicentrarchi is usually a free-living protozoan but can become an opportunistic histophagous parasite causing rapid lethal systemic infections in cultured fish. This review provides information about the morphology and biology of the scuticociliate P. dicentrarchi, as well as information about the pathological and immunological reactions of the host in response to the infection with the parasite. The epidemiology and the control strategies of the disease are also reviewed.