Seeing brands as humans: Development and validation of a brand anthropomorphism scale

Artyom Golossenko, Kishore Gopalakrishna Pillai, Lukman Aroean

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)


Brand anthropomorphism is recognised as an important construct in marketing, yet it lacks clarity in operationalisa-tion and valid measurement. The objective of this research, therefore, is to develop and validate the brand anthro-pomorphism scale (BASC). Brand anthropomorphism is defined as the perception of brand as an entity that has ana-logical human-like features, mental and emotional states that people believe to be distinctively human. It is conceptualised as a multidimensional superordinate construct. Across six comprehensive studies (N=1,666), this research develops a valid and reliable measure of brand anthropomorphism that has competent psychometric properties for convergent, discriminant and predictive validity. The results indicate that brand anthropomorphism is a valid predictor of outcomes such as brand trust and brand commitment. Finally, in support of incremental validity, it is identified that the BASC explains variance in brand trust and brand commitment above and beyond the measure of brand anthropomorphism commonly employed in the literature. Theoretical implications for research and implications for practice are also discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)737-755
Number of pages19
JournalInternational Journal of Research in Marketing
Issue number4
Early online date29 Feb 2020
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • Brand anthropomorphism
  • Brand perception
  • Consumer–brand relationships
  • Scale development
  • Scale validation

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