Seven-coordinate Tb3+ complexes with 90% quantum yields: High-performance examples of combined singlet- and triplet-to-Tb3+ energy-transfer pathways

Lucas Emanoel Do N. Aquino, Guilherme A. Barbosa, Jaqueline de L. Ramos, Siddhartha O. K. Giese, Francielli S. Santana, David L. Hughes, Giovana G. Nunes, Lianshe Fu, Ming Fang, Giordano Poneti, Albano N. Carneiro Neto, Renaldo T. Moura, Rute A. S. Ferreira, Luís D. Carlos, Andreia G. Macedo, Jaísa F. Soares

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Seven-coordinate, pentagonal-bipyramidal (PBP) complexes [Ln(bbpen)Cl] and [Ln(bbppn)Cl], in which Ln = Tb3+ (products I and II), Eu3+ (III and IV), and Gd3+ (V and VI), with bbpen2- = N,N′-bis(2-oxidobenzyl)-N,N′-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)ethylenediamine and bbppn2- = N,N′-bis(2-oxidobenzyl)-N,N′-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,2-propanediamine, were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, alternating-current magnetic susceptibility measurements, and photoluminescence (steady-state and time-resolved) spectroscopy. Under a static magnetic field of 0.1 T, the Tb3+ complexes I and II revealed single-ion-magnet behavior. Also, upon excitation at 320 nm at 300 K, I and II presented very high absolute emission quantum yields (0.90 ± 0.09 and 0.92 ± 0.09, respectively), while the corresponding Eu3+ complexes III and IV showed no photoluminescence. Detailed theoretical calculations on the intramolecular energy-transfer rates for the Tb3+ products indicated that both singlet and triplet ligand excited states contribute efficiently to the overall emission performance. The expressive quantum yields, QLnL, measured for I and II in the solid state and a dichloromethane solution depend on the excitation wavelength, being higher at 320 nm. Such a dependence was rationalized by computing the intersystem crossing rates (WISC) and singlet fluorescence lifetimes (τS) related to the population dynamics of the S1 and T1 levels. Thin films of product II showed high air stability and photostability upon continuous UV illumination, which allowed their use as downshifting layers in a green light-emitting device (LED). The prototypes presented a luminous efficacy comparable with those found in commercial LED coatings, without requiring encapsulation or dispersion of II in host matrixes. The results indicate that the PBP environment determined by the ethylenediamine (en)-based ligands investigated in this work favors the outstanding optical properties in Tb3+ complexes. This work presents a comprehensive structural, chemical, and spectroscopic characterization of two Tb3+ complexes of mixed-donor, en-based ligands, focusing on their outstanding optical properties. They constitute good molecular examples in which both triplet and singlet excited states provide energy to the Tb3+ ion and lead to high values of QLnL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)892-907
Number of pages16
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Volume60
Issue number2
Early online date4 Jan 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jan 2021

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