Sex differences in venous stenosis and occlusion in patients with endocardial leads

K Boczar, M Dębski, A Ząbek, K Haberka, A Sławuta, J Lelakowski, B Małecka

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Venous stenosis and occlusion (VSO) in the presence of endocardial leads constitute one of the complications of permanent cardiac pacing. At present there are no scientific reports on the influence of sex on the incidence of VSO.  

Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the influence of sex on the incidence of VSO in patients with earlier implanted endocardial leads in a single-center retrospective analysis.  

Materials and methods: The material consists of 284 records of consecutive patients admitted to hospital to undergo electrotherapy procedures. In all patients a contrast venography for ipsilateral venous confluence was performed before the procedure. Patients were divided into two groups according to sex criterion. Groups were compared concerning following parameters: demographic characteristics, cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) characteristics, comorbidities, CHA2DS2-VASc score, selected risk factors for VSO.  

Results: Group I consist of 101 females, whereas group II consist of 183 males. Both groups did not differ significantly for age, number of implanted endocardial leads and lead dwell time. In the cohort males were with significantly greater burden of morbidity, reflected by the mean result of CHA2DS2-VASc (P=0.0098). In males there was significantly more often chronic heart failure (P<0.0001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.0450) and tobacco use (P=0.0159). Males had more ICD implanted than females (P=0.0270). In the examine cohort 88 patients (31%) had VSO. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of presence of VSO between females and males (P=0.4685). The detailed analysis of the patients with VSO divided according to sex revealed higher morbidity in males.  

Conclusions: The equality of VSO incidence in groups of males and females along with the predominance of factors protecting against VSO in group of males support the assumption that female gender is a protective factor against the development of VSO, equally as known protective factors in males.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-192
JournalPolski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Issue number251
Publication statusPublished - May 2017

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