Short-term trajectories of workplace bullying and its impact on strain: A latent class growth modeling approach

Alfredo Rodriguez-Munoz, Mirko Antino, Paula Ruiz-Zorrilla, Ana Sanz-Vergel, Arnold B. Bakker

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13 Citations (Scopus)
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The aim of this weekly diary study was (a) to identify trajectories of workplace bullying over time and (b) to examine the association of each cluster with strain indicators (i.e., insomnia and anxiety/depression). A sample of 286 employees during 4 weeks of data was used (N occasions = 1,144). Results of latent class growth modeling showed that 3 trajectories could be identified: a nonbullying trajectory, which comprised 90.9% of the sample; an inverted U trajectory; and a delayed increase bullying trajectory; the latter two each had 4.2% of the participants. We found a significant interaction between time and trajectories when predicting insomnia and anxiety/depression, with each strain showing a differential pattern with each trajectory. It seems that the negative effects on insomnia are long-lasting and remain after bullying has already decreased. In the case of anxiety and depression, when bullying decreases strain indicators also decrease. In this study, by examining trajectories of bullying at work over time and their associations with strain, we provide new insights into the temporal dynamics of workplace bullying.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)345–356
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Occupational Health Psychology
Issue number5
Early online date2020
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020


  • Anxiety/depression
  • Insomnia
  • Time
  • Trajectories
  • Workplace bullying

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