Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded duckweed: Improvement of the ethanol yield by increasing yeast titre

X. Zhao, G. K. Moates, A. Elliston, D. R. Wilson, M. Coleman, K. W. Waldron

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This study investigated the conversion of Lemna minor biomass to bioethanol. The biomass was pre-treated by steam explosion (SE, 210 °C, 10 min) and then subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using CellicÒ CTec 2 (20 U or 0.87 FPU gﰂ1 substrate) cellulase plus b-glucosidase (2 U gﰂ1 substrate) and a yeast inoculum of 10% (v/v or 8.0 ﰀ 107 cells mLﰂ1). At a substrate concentration of 1% (w/v) an ethanol yield of 80% (w/w, theoretical) was achieved. However at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v), the ethanol yield was lowered to 18.8% (w/w, theoretical). Yields were considerably improved by increasing the yeast titre in the inoculum or preconditioning the yeast on steam exploded liquor. These approaches enhanced the ethanol yield up to 70% (w/w, theoretical) at a substrate concen- tration of 20% (w/v) by metabolising fermentation inhibitors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263–269
Number of pages7
JournalBioresource Technology
Early online date1 Jul 2014
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2015


  • Duckweed
  • Bioethanol production
  • Steam explosion
  • Cellulase
  • Simultaneous saccharification
  • fermentation

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