Solar potential in Saudi Arabia for flat-plate surfaces of varying tilt tracking the sun

Harry D. Kambezidis, Ashraf Farahat, Mansour Almazroui, Emad Ramadan

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The objective of the present work is to investigate the performance of flat-plate solar panels in Saudi Arabia that continuously follow the daily motion of the sun. To that end, the annual energy sums are estimated for such surfaces at 82 locations covering all Saudi Arabia. All calculations use a surface albedo of 0.2 and another one with a near-real value. The variation of the solar energy sums on annual, seasonal, and monthly basis is given for near-real ground albedos; the analysis provides regression equations for the energy sums as function of time. A map of the annual inclined solar energy for Saudi Arabia is derived and presented. The annual energy sums are found to vary between 2159 and 4078 kWhm −2 year −1. Finally, a correction factor, introduced in a recent publication, is used; it is confirmed that the linear relationship between the correction factor and the ground-albedo ratio is general enough to be graphically representable as a nomogram. A discussion regarding the differences among solar systems on horizontal, fixed-tilt, 1-axis, and 2-axis systems is presented.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11564
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 6 Dec 2021


  • Inclined surfaces
  • Maximum energy
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Solar potential
  • Solar tracking

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