The first aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of atomizer design on the properties of solid lipid microparticles produced by spray congealing. Two different air atomizers have been employed: a conventional air pressure nozzle (APN) and a recently developed atomizer (wide pneumatic nozzle, WPN). Milled theophylline and Compritol® 888ATO were used to produce microparticles at drug-to-carrier ratios of 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70 using the two atomizers. The results showed that the application of different nozzles had significant impacts on the morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and drug release behavior of the microparticles. In contrast, the characteristics of the atomizer did not influence the physicochemical properties of the microparticles as differential scanning calorimetry, Hot Stage microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis demonstrated. The drug and the lipid carrier presented in their original crystalline forms in both WPN and APN systems. A second objective of this study was to develop a novel mathematical model for describing the dynamic process of drug release from the solid lipid microparticles. For WPN microparticles the model predicted the changes of the drug release behavior with particle size and drug loading, while for APN microparticles the model fitting was not as good as for the WPN systems, confirming the influence of the atomizer on the drug release behavior.