Subchondral bone remodelling in osteoarthritis

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Abstract

Subchondral bone remodelling is an integral part of osteoarthritis and involves the development of subchondral sclerosis seen on plain imaging, along with osteophyte formation.

The development of these changes is due to persistent abnormal mechanical stresses which create a cellular and biomolecular response to microfractures in the subchondral bone and osteochondral junction.

An early sign is bone marrow lesions seen on MRI scanning. Healing can occur at this stage by correcting the abnormal loads. Persistence leads to what is thought to be a delayed union or nonunion response by the bone.

Microfractures of the osteochondral junction, coupled with articular cartilage fissuring and loss, allows synovial fluid to penetrate the subchondral bone along with cytokines and other molecules reacting with the bone cells to increase the pathological effects.

This review gives an overview of the current thoughts on subchondral bone remodelling in osteoarthritis that is aimed at orthopaedic surgeons to help in the understanding of the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and the role of surgical management.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-229
JournalEFORT Open Reviews
Volume4
Issue number6
Early online date3 Jun 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019

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